The Origin and Development of Artificial Grass

artificial_grassThe Origin and Development of Artificial Grass

Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company was the first company to make use of the artificial turf. This was back in the 1940’s. The turf was made from rubber and it was made for athletes. The athletes trained on it. By using it, their performance was optimised and the risks minimised. After this, the company made the ‘3M’ turf which is in use until today.

A man named Chemstrand is known to have come up with the artificial grass also 20 years after the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company did. He was a businessman in the nineteen sixties. Chemstrand and his teamates wanted to come up with an artificial playing surfaces to be used for athletic activities. Their idea was to create a ‘tough carpet’. The ford foundation approched them. For Ford Foundation, they wanted to get a solution for urban sports surfaces. Chemstrand continued working on the idea for the next five years.

It is very difficult to come across natural grass in the urban areas yet some sports are played on grass surfaces. Parents are particularly concerned for ther children for they want them to play and enjoy the games. However, this is hindered by lack of grassy areas in the urban areas. For this reason, Ford prompted Chemstrand to research and create an urban spaorts surface. Of all the varities that Chemstrand came up with, one of them is in use today.

In 1964, the first largescale synthetic turf installation was done in Rhode island at the Moses Brown school. This was to give the children some playing ground since there were no green spane in the area. unlike other materials that were used to provide playground surfaces like concrete, the turf was safe for children.

A historical event happened in 1966 when Houston Astrodome installed the chemgrass. This was a breakthrough for the use of the turf in stadiums. Houston Astrodome is the home to Houston Oilers(a footballer) and Houston Astros( a baseball player). Other stadiums started using the turf and in 1967,it was patented in the United states. The turf was renamed ‘Astr Turf’. John A Wortman, an employee of chemgrass is responsible for the name change. By associating the turf with the famous Astrodome, it gained a lot of popularity.

The tactic bore fruits again in 1976 when it was used in Montreal by the American Hockey for the olympics. The Prince of wales installed the turf in his garage to protect his 4×4 bio-diesel system.

Over the years, the turf has evolved over many generations. A generation in this context are stages of evolution of the artificial grass.

  • The first generation did not have an infill and it used short-pile fibres
  • Second generation turfs included sand as their infill
  • A mixture of recylcled rubber and sand were used in making the third generation turf. At a distance, you can hardly distinguish it from real grass.

Though not yet approved, the 4th, 5th and 6th generation turfs are said to be already in existence.The 4th generation is like the3rd generation but it does not have an infill. Rubber infill is used on the carpet’s surfacing for the 5th generation turf. There are no known characteristic for the 6th generation untill now. But it is definitely better than the others.

When the turf came into use, there were some complains. The initial turf was very hard and player complained that it caused injuries that were more serious than those suffered on grass surface. The players named it the unforgiving playing surface. At some point, it was considered aesthetically unappealing. Actually by early 1990’s many North American Football Associations went back to natural grass.

The challenges set the stage for more advancements between 1990 and 2000. Different infills were used and this greatly improved the playing experience. As the turf’s popularity increased, many companies joined in to make them. Competition further enhanced the use of better technology when making the turfs.The turfs have been used in landscaping, airport runaways, a training ground in Tokyo on top of an apartment,motor embarkments and on a ski run in Portugal.

Different sizes of Paella Pan and Number of People they Can Serve

Paella_PanDifferent sizes of Paella Pan and Number of People they Can Serve

Paella pans come in many different sizes. Some are as large as 150 centimeters in diameter while others are only 10 centimeters wide. These different sizes have their different uses. Mainly the reason for picking a certain size of the pan is guided by the number of people you plan to serve. The ideal pan depth should give you a paella dish depth of half an inch. Here is a look at the number of people different paella pan sizes can serve, advantages and shortcomings.
The pans ranging from diameter of 10 to 24 centimeters are normally for use by one person. The rice you cook with them will only be enough for an individual. They have the advantage that they are small and you can use them on a small oven. Heat will be spread quickly and evenly throughout the paella. Their only disadvantage is that they can’t be used by a family.

The pans above this range, which is pans measuring between 26 to 30 centimeters can be used to prepare a meal enough to serve at most three people. This is the ideal pan for a small family or a couple living together. Its size also allows heat to spread evenly.

The range of 32 to 36 centimeters in diameter paella pans can serve 4 people. The families which only have parents and two children can buy this size since it is enough for them without having leftovers. It can fit in many ovens and heat will spread evenly in it for even cooking of the dish.

For someone looking to serve 5 or 6 people the ideal pan to choose the ideal pans range will be either a paella pan of 36 or 38 centimeters in the diameter. This is a medium sized pan and it won’t be a problem in preparing the dish since it will fit in the oven nicely and good heat transfer to all the areas of pan.
The next pan sizes are 42 to 46 centimeters. With these you will be able to serve about 8 people. Care when using this kind of pan should be taken to ensure heat is distributed even not to have some areas of the paella fully cooked while others are semi-cooked.

paella pans having a diameter of between 50cm to 55cm can serve up to 12 people. A wide grill would be recommended to use when cooking so that all ends of pan are in direct contact with the heat. A large oven can also be used.
Having a family-come-together or inviting friends over and you want to serve them paella rice, you should consider pans of diameter size ranging from 60 to about 70 centimeters which are enough to serve up to 21 people. With this size you should have prior experience in using them or hire a professional to do it for you. It wouldn’t hurt even asking a friend for help. Reason is that most ovens will not distribute heat evenly to the whole surface area of the pan ending up with semi-cooked paella or some parts being burnt.

A paella pan of size ranging from 70 cm to 90 cm will be enough to serve between 20 people to 50 people. This pan size is not necessary for home use since it will not be used regularly. But if you frequently hold parties with rice being one of the dishes you serve then you can consider buying it. A small restaurant serving paella can buy this.
Pans ranging from 90 to 100 cm are able to serve 50 to 80 people. Those of between 100 and 115 cm will serve up to 110 people. If you are expecting more than 100 people it would be safe to choose pans of between 115cm to 130cm which will serve up to 180 people. The 150cm wide pan will serve up to 250 people.